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Topic: The epistemology

Alcides Iván Meza
posted 3/7/2009  00:18Send e-mail to userReply with quote
The epistemology 

The artificial thought directs the study of natural thought.

It results paradoxical that the basis to elaborate a correct theory of natural human thought is the elaboration, study and evolution of artificial thought. It is so, because in the artificial thought are more or less appropriately reproduced the same fundamental processes that are found in the natural thought; because of it, is an incredible methodological guide to penetrate those unfathomable thought's mysteries.

From the advances in artificial thought programming, constantly I extract new teachings concerning natural thought. Those teachings, although they are more or less hypothetical, convert themselves in new epistemological knowledge.

From now on, the science of thought acquires -for the first time in history- signs of reality. The science of thought was one of the first propositions of ancient greeks, whom called it epistemology. The epistemology will be -in this century- one of the biggest scientific revelations.

I consider here epistemology essentially as science of thought, just as it was the initial orientation in which was applied this concept in ancient Greece. I think that that orientation can and must be rescued. The science of knowledge is gnoseology. The differences between both sciences are transcendent.

With the guide that offer the results arising from the artificial thought, the foundation of the science of thought is now possible. And with little time going on tied to the artificial thought, this science will achieve its own independence and it will evolve by itself.

Brain's functions are the basis of natural thought.

Within the human brain occur extremely complex, electrochemical, biochemical and physiologic processes, which link the nervous system with the endocrine system and other organic systems. In the frame of natural and social environment in which one lives, those processes delineate the individual human personality. However, it is feasible to separate in an abstract way the functions of the nervous system, isolating them from the complementary processes.

The cerebral memorization is not simple. Part of the memory becomes converted in permanent; but the majority of memorizations are of short duration and are constantly exposed to the modifications of experiencial, educational and cultural life. In daily individual life, continuously are being created new synaptic connections in order to process the new knowledge apprehensions or sensitive experience apprehensions. Those connections demand endless reinforcements of the same cognitive phenomenon or of sensorial reception for being supported; otherwise, they disappear and leave space to other structures formation. Even, the own internal processes of thought can, in certain circumstances, alter the memorizations already obtained. Thus, the process of cerebral memorization results in a very complex process.

The same cerebral phenomenon appears in all functions of thought: reasoning, creativity, fantasy, abstraction, etcetera. Only the permanent exercise of intellectual activity permits the support of the cerebral functional structures that already have been created, always submitted to the remainder of cerebral, organic and thinking activity.

I am not taking under consideration here the effects of illnesses and of aging, etcetera. on the thought. For example, I don't consider the action of the schizophrenia, the Alzheimer illness, the depression, etcetera.

The thought comprehends thousands of tiny processes.

Any process of natural thought requires of thousands of simple tiny processes within the nervous system, just as the artificial thought reveals it in Aëxz program. In this program, any mental process requires many millions of tiny calculations.

The scientific study of thought must be conducted to isolate the best prototypes of those millions of tiny processes, and reveal their physical-chemical characteristics, etcetera. Then, it will be needed to connect each of these processes with the others, until reconstructing important parts of the mental process.

It is not feasible to investigate, directly, these isolated processes in the living brain of a person. And neither it is manageable the total investigation of mental functioning, because it is too much complicated. The only real possibility of scientific research is that of abstractly isolating the simple processes and reproducing them in the laboratory and in theory.

The levels of association in the simple mathematical thought.

With Aëxz's programming I have achieved the more or less exactly reproduction of underlying process within the simple natural mathematical thought. This thought consists in the mental processing of expressions just as: "What is two hundred thirty-six multiplied by fifty-two?", "What is twenty-three cubed?", "What is the square root of four?". The Ixz's algorithm that resolves this type of expressions functions based on three levels of "parenthesis" or "enclosures" that the mind uses to associate expressions. Besides the levels of association, the algorithm uses codes of operation and codes of quantity, codes of grammatical use and codes of use of the levels of association. All of it, on the basis of previous definition of the grammatical and mental structure of the complete expression. In a higher level, it uses mathematical functions, predefined ones or programed by me, which correspond to the simple artificial mathematical thought.

In the mentioned algorithm, I have found that the levels of association are used in a flexible way, not mechanized, based on signs or situations. There is not involucrate reasoning, therefore it is simple thought.

Making the transposition of simple natural mathematical thought between languages, it exists an important difference in the form that this thought is given between the Spanish language (which is the Aëxz's prototype), the English language and the French. In Spanish, the process is fluid and everything functions on the same bases. The same thing happens in English language, although in common English speech are used modified expressions: for example, the Spanish expression "mil doscientos" [1000+200] corresponds also with the expression "twelve hundreds" [12*100], expression this which is not usual in the Castilian language. In French, there exist two substantial modifications in numbers greater of 69; however, this difference in mathematical thought is just a variant in the same fundamental process for the three languages. For number 70, the French adds two quantities: sixty and ten; for eighty, it multiplies four by twenty. That is an important complication inside the simple natural mathematical thought.

The limits of the simple natural thought.

The algorithm is so functional that I could advance -sometimes-, in base to intuitive hits. For example, with the use of the "point" expression to indicate decimal numbers. This expression, I simply added it to the database Convers.dbf, with its required codes. Here I found one of the limits of natural mathematical thought: the algorithm gathers perfectly until one mathematical expression after the expression "point"; after there, the obtained mathematical expression is inappropiate. The expressions "twenty point three" and "one point sixteen" are converted to "20.3" and "1.16". But the expression "twenty point one hundred forty-two" is not efficiently converted. Here, the necessity of a qualitative leap in the evolution of mathematical thought is demostrated, going from the based on natural language to the formulistic one.

Another limit found with the algorithm of simple artificial mathematical thought is with regard to the alteration of natural priority order between mathematical operations. The expression "fifty thousand plus forty multiplied by eight raised to the square" is susceptible of diverse priority orders in mathematical operations, 50*1000+40*8**2, 50*1000+(40*8)**2 , (50*1000+40*8)**2, etcetera. This diversity is not possible to be clearly obtained with the simple mathematical language, therefore a new level of evolution in mathematical thought is indispensable. In the artificial thought, the expression remaining is the one applying the basic order in which the priorities are already defined.

The physiology of thought.

Some simple processes, isolated, concrete, definite, of this entire algorithm can be "searched for" as possibilities in the physiology of thought: the brain's physiology directed to resolve thought processes. One of these processes is, for example, the detection of operativity's code of the expression "six"; that code is "+", the "plus" sign. Within the brain, the "six" expression links to an additive association: the digit or quantity 6 associates additively with the precedent mathematical expressions. To do this, it is also required the detection of quantity's code of the "six" expression. Then, it follows the process that is programed in Ixz. In the two referred code detections, probably the fundamental process is the memorystic one, although other processes are globally superposed, according to sense and to the particular thought's commands that have been activated. Within the brain, some process will indicate the additive association, and other process the consideration of quantity, related with the "six" expression. And in some way, the two "data" will be transported accompanying the physiologic indication of the "six" expression. This becomes associated with the preceding process, that is to say, it has to be established an indication of the global mental process course. For example, if the total expression is "forty-six", the artificial algorithmic execution is manifestly different from the one in which the "six" expression is initial in the mathematical subject or mathematical expression.

Alcides Iván Meza
Director de Investigación Científica
Universidad Cristiana de Honduras
Instalaciones de la 105 Brigada de Infantería
San Pedro Sula, Honduras

 Aëxz 1.4 download link.
Last edited by Alcides Iván Meza @ 3/7/2009 12:24:00 AM

posted 2/24/2010  07:09Send e-mail to userReply with quote
Very informative.

I think still we need to go a long way to reveal the mysteries in the brain.



Alcides Iván Meza
posted 3/13/2010  01:28Send e-mail to userReply with quote
Yes, indeed, a very long way ahead. But if you think about the 25 centuries since the very first scientific effort in human history, and the mystery of thought as an issue, a very important one, in Greek philosophy, and in all science since then, you should understand how important is to put us in the real way, in the correct road to truth about this.
We cannot demand an immediate solution. Not after Aristotle, and the best world’s thinkers have tried to solve this problem. And they could not.
We have to be patient about it. We’ll be clarifying this mystery, step by step, in the next few years.

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